Kuşadası and Its Neighborhood – Antique Cities in Proximity of Kuşadası
This city was established on the hill where today’s Club Pigale and Disco and A’la Carte Restaurant of the Kuştur Holiday Clubs are located. The first health city established in the world is Pygela. King of Argos, Agamemnon founded Pigale in Kuşadası and Agamemnon City in İzmir “to rest his soldiers and to fix his armada” during the Trojan Wars took 10 years.
Both cities succeeded repair soldiers’ mental and physical health deteriorated during wars by means of their healing spring waters available in their proximity. Çam Port which hosts today’s Pine Bay Holiday Club and the pond-swamp behind today’s Tusan Hotel were port of the Pigale City and shipyard. Pigale Health City and Port, then, became resting and entertainment place of Alexander the Great.
ANAIA – ANEA (SOĞUCAK) – FORTRESS OF KADI
This coastal town in the Carta area right across the Samos Island was an appropriate commercial center as well as shelter for pirate ships owing to its convenient structure. During the Anaia Athens-Spartan Wars (B.C. 431-404), this area was occupied by banished and fugitive people from Samos who support Athens and enemies of them. People in here were supporting Samos rulers against both Athenians and Spartans. The name of the city was mentioned in the Thukydides due to incidents experienced in this period. By 1304, Anea and its Necropolis located in proximity of today’s Fortress of Kadı were hosting a Genoese colony and under Byzantium Rule. Genoese living in Anea City was organizing pirate attacks against Venetian commercial ships together with native Rums afterwards the Kemalpaşa (Nif) Act. Ania was included in the Turkish territory after Ephesus and İzmir in 1317.
The center of the semi-religious and semi-political Paionion Union comprised of 12 Ionian cities was located in the “Karyon – Otomatik Tepe” Kale Hill remaining within borders of the Dilek Peninsula in the Güzelçamlı District. Otomatik Tepe is a sacred place consisted of one site. Around 700 B.C., deputies of 12 city-states were holding meetings on certain days of a year in Panionion so as to take important political decisions. In the famous ritual sacrifice for Helikonios, with other reference of sea-god Poseidon, which was prepared by lonian troops, the purpose was to discuss issues of state-cities and to allow them to make suggestions to each other and to make decisions about important issues. Panionion was known as a prognostic center as well. For better prognostic ritual, lungs of sacrificed animals were necessarily submitted to the God in one piece.
Neapolis is located in the south of the Güvercin Island like another peninsula in the area. It was the first settlement area of Kuşadası established by Ionians in ancient periods. There is still remaining of the ancient city under the sea.
As it was settlement place of nomad Aka sect when they first migrated to the western Anatolia, the ruins found on the 11 Hills can be considered as evidence that there was settlement in Kuşadası 3000 years ago. Walls made up of large rocks have still been standing today.
HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND MOSQUES
This is a minor island located on the Kuşadası Coast. It was tied to the mainland by means of a breakwater. The island host a fortress built in the Byzantium period. The island performed an outpost task during Ottoman Empire time and especially during Mora revolt against attacks expected from Greek Islands. Furthermore, since the island was utilized in efforts against pirates, it has been called as “Pirate Island” by community. The fortress was renovated, illuminated and put in service for tourism purposes.
ÖKÜZ MEHMED PASHA CARAVANSARY (KURŞUNLU HAN)
The Caravansary was built by Öküz Mehmed Pasha with two floors and a yard in 1618 for naval commerce. (According to some local myths, it was not built by Aydın Governor Öküz Mehmed Pasha; he just fixed it while he was returning from a military campaign in Syria in 1607. Bastions and grill holes in Kurşunlu Han indicate that the fortress experienced pitched battles. The yard in average dimensions of 28.50 M x 21.60 M was surrounded by porches and rooms on both floors. Existence of this Caravansary suggests that Kuşadası was located on the end of one of the caravan paths in the Ottoman empire and Kuşadası was an export harbor for commercial goods sent from inner Anatolia. The building was described in “Seyahatname” written by traveler Evliya Çelebi in detail. The structure was leased and renovated by “Club Mediterranee” in 1966 and opened as “Tourism” hospitality facility. Today, it still maintains the same function.
In the Christian period, there were three entry gates of the fortress walls built in square form in Kuşadası. These fortress gates were clinched on very thick timbers and it was plated with 5 mm-thick metal sheets. Current fortress gate is the last one standing still among the three fortress doors. According to the local myths, people who pass underneath this gate could not leave Kuşadası ever; and become one of the residents. Increasing population of the county supports this belief.
Since the ancient ages, human beings adopted principle of living in proximity of nature and succeeded to find cure for number of diseases from the nature through careful observations. Here in the Ionian and Roman Periods, Kuşadası and its neighborhood provided cure to people by means of Pygela and Roman Baths. In the prosperous period of Ephesus, Roman Bath was built on the healing spring which cures all types of dermatoses and today its remaining are still on the skirts of the Ilıca Hill.
Kurşunlu Monastery is located on the hill seeing the sea from up above and aligning behind Davutlar District and above 600 m from the sea level. Whereas the region incurred intensive Christian migration in the 8thCentury, number of monasteries in proximity of Ephesus display good sample of Byzantium architecture. The reason for such a long distance to monastery was to protect it from attacks of pagans and to use it for educational purposes.
In the very ancient times, fresh water was carried from Kuşadası to Ephesus by means of aqueducts. Kinkirdos spring located in Değirmendere District was reaching to Ephesus by travelling 45 km path along straits and hills. In the Ottoman period, Öküz Mehmed Pasha built aqueducts to bring water from Burgaz to Kuşadası. Majority of these aqueducts are still standing intact.
Andız Tower is located on skirts of the Pilav Mountain on the Atatürk Road from Kuşadası to Aydın Highway. In 2000 B.C., Legel of Karia and small group of Lydians who migrated from central Anatolia settled in this district. There has been no any remaining from this agricultural society. It is presumed that Andız Tower was a watch tower from Hellenistic Period. Precursor Turk groups who came to this area lived in here at first due to security concerns. Upon Ottoman conquest of Kuşadası in 1423, they settled down by the coast. Ece district located in the proximity of this area was again one of the first Turkomen settlements in Kuşadası.
KALE İÇİ MOSQUE
Kale İçi Mosque was built by Öküz Mehmed Pasha together with Caravansary in the 17th Century. This most remarkable mosque found in Kuşadası County. While it was structured in square form, a large dome covers the main worship area. As walls of main body raises in two stages, they end with moldings. The final community section in Baghdadi style on the northern face of the mosque was added after the renovation made in 1830. Dome frame with 12 arches on the square site was supported with frinced buttress at four corners. Wings of the main entrance door of the mosque were ornamented with geometrical joints and pearly inlaids.
Öküz Mehmet Pasha started construction of Kurşunlu Han (the Caravansary) together with Kale İçi Bath and the Mosque. Ilyas Aga, Muğla Sanjak Beg, contributed into these efforts through construction of a library and instrumented the library with both scientific and Islamic resources to open service for community.
Hanım Mosque was built in 1658 by Haji Hatice Hatun (wife of the Söke County protector İlyas Aga.)
HADJI IBRAHIM MOSQUE
Haji Ibrahim Mosque was built by a local person called İbramaki. Whereas construction year is unknown, it was repaired in 1952.
Turkmen Mosque was built by Turkomen sect leaders in 1650. It was repaired in 1952.
The builder of the mosque is unknown and it was renovated in 1952.